2021 AQHA World Champion: Danjer
by Larry Thornton
Our life is full of dreams with goals and objectives we want to accomplish in our time. Our individual dreams depend on what our life’s journey is and what we do in life. Sometimes we dream of things that we don’t really feel we will accomplish, but we have a realistic feeling that we can fulfill that dream. But we still dream of achieving that goal. Many racehorse owners, breeders and trainers hope of having a World Champion, and only a few fulfill that dream. Danjer, the 2021 AQHA World Champion, fulfilled that dream for Dean Frey as the breeder, owner, and trainer of the five-year-old gelding. Now that is the way to cover all the bases!
Danjer is a 2016 brown gelding sired by FDD Dynasty and out of Shez Jess Toxic by Take Off Jess. He was bred by Frey, who was achieving his dream as a breeder. Danjer is owned by the partnership of Frey, Downtime Enterprises LLC (Pat Guthrie) and Billy G. Smith, fulfilling the dream of a World Champion for all three owners. He is trained by Frey and his jockey is Cody Smith, who delivered the dream for these horsemen.
When I called Dean Frey to talk about the story behind Danjer, I found a man who had spent the day at the Heritage Place Mixed Winter Sale and his day at this event made him feel like a “Champion.” You could truly feel that he was honored to have his World Champion. He fully appreciated fulfilling that illusive dream and the magnitude of what that meant to him as a member of the racehorse industry.
Frey had this to say this about Danjer, his 2021 World Champion. “First couple of times I ran him before he broke his maiden, he just hadn’t caught on to breaking or anything, but I took him to Minnesota, and he ran second or third the first time I ran him and he ran a respectable race. But the next time when he broke his maiden, I could tell he had figured it out. If you know what you are looking for, you can tell when a horse is running.”
Well, Danjer has certainly figured it out, he has earnings of $1,503,885 with a record of 26 starts with 15 wins, six seconds and three thirds. He started his winning ways at two, breaking his maiden at Canterbury Park and then winning his trial for the All American Futurity, then with a win in the All American Juvenile Stakes. He next won his Texas Classic Futurity trial and finished third in those Grade 1 finals. Danjer came back in 2019 to win his trial and then place second in the Ruidoso Derby-G1. He was second in his All American Derby-G1 trial, qualifying for the First Down Dash Stakes that he won. He also finished second in The Championship at Sunland Park-G1 and third in the Zia Park Championship-G1 that year. Danjer showed his championship material in 2020, earning the AQHA Champion Gelding and Champion Aged Horse titles with four wins from six starts, including the Downs at Albuquerque Fall Championship-G1 and the AQHA Challenge Championship-G1, as well as the Canterbury Park Championship Challenge-G3.
So, with his 2020 Champion titles under his belt, Danjer started the 2021 racing year with a second by a slim nose in the Leo Stakes-G1 in May at Remington Park. His next start came with a win in the Debbie Schauf Remington Park Invitational Championship Stakes-G1. He was then off to Minnesota, winning the Bank Of America Canterbury Park Championship Challenge Stakes-G3. He went to Ruidoso in September to win the All American Gold Cup-G1. He then made two starts at Albuquerque with a second in the Downs at Albuquerque Fall Championship-G1 and then a win in the AQHA Challenge Championship Stakes-G1. His final start came in November at Lone Star Park with a win in the Refrigerator Invitational Championship Stakes-G1. This gave him a record of seven starts with five wins and two seconds, with four Grade 1 wins and one Grade 3 win while running at four different tracks. He earned $651,113 for the year, becoming not only the 2021 AQHA World Champion, but also the AQHA Champion Aged Horse and the Champion Aged Gelding.
Dean Frey is like many in the business today. He got his start as a boy, growing up around the racetrack. He talked about his entry into the racehorse business as a trainer, breeder, and owner. “My father (Darrell Frey) trained racehorses for many years. He trained Ettago Chickie, the 1980 Champion Two-Year-Old Filly. So, I kind of got into racehorses through my father.” He then recalled that going to Los Alamitos Race Course as a boy with his dad, “was like going to the big apple.” They were now a part of the big time.
Darrell Frey was a trainer at Portland Meadows in Oregon for several years and then he became a fixture at Los Alamitos beginning in the late 1960’s. He had 214 winners at Los Alamitos. His most successful runner was Ettago Chickie, who earned $534,265 winning the 1980 Skoal Dash For Cash Futurity-G1 and 1980 Kindergarten Futurity-G1.
Frey added, “I was a jockey for about 10 years.” He counts among his mounts The Furies, a stakes winner in such races as the Miss Princess Invitational Handicap, and he was an early rider for The Black Alliance, a major stakes winner that went on to be a two-time Champion Aged Gelding.
“I hauled horses for a while and then I started training in about 1990. When I started training, I trained Quarter Horses and I had about a 15-horse stable. Bill Smith, an Englishman who was the Arabian racing manager for Darley Stables, offered me a job training for Sheikh Mohammed and his brothers. When my clients found out I was training Arabians, they took all their horses away from me. But I stayed involved in the Quarter Horse end of it. We raised them and I trained a few of my own and Dan and Anita Simms stayed with me.”
“I trained horses for Sheikh Mohammed for 21 years. It was a good run. They gave me a lot of opportunities that I probably wouldn’t have had with my 15-horse stable. I worked for them all those years and only met Sheikh Mohammed one time. All my dealings were with Mr. Smith, and he treated me really good.”
Thunder Tiki was one of the first Arabian runners he trained and she finished second in the 1993 Drinkers of Wind Futurity. PS Crystal Sage was a three-time stakes winner of the 1993 California Girls Stakes, 1993 California Futurity and 1994 Sierra Queens Handicap. This mare set a 4 1/2-furlong Track Record at Los Alamitos. Forty All and Dunoire were winners of the Pleasanton Arabian Distaff Stakes. Dunoire was bred by the Darley Stable, but owned by Frey’s daughter Dusti. Bessemer was another Darley Stable-bred horse that was owned by Frey. This horse won the Fresno Golden Queen Distaff Stakes.
The father and son team of Darrel and Dean had not only been trainers, but they were breeders as well. When the Darley Stable cut back on Arabian racing, Frey got back to full time Quarter Horse racing and, as you will see, his role as a breeder made a big impact on his training stable.
When I asked him about how he got into breeding, he replied, “My dad trained and raised a few of his own, it was something we started doing together at one time.” One of the runners to make it into the Frey Stable was Just Cant Hide It by Make It Anywhere, a 2006 filly that was bred by Darrell and trained by Dean. When Darrell passed away, Dean reflected on his father’s pride in this mare - one of the last runners he bred. “He had a mare that he bred and raced by the name of Just Cant Hide It, who was multiple allowance winner at Los Alamitos. She made him very proud.” She earned $45,231 and was a finalist in the 2010 Sundown Distaff Challenge and in the 2012 Evergreen Park Distaff. Illthinkaboutit by Carters Cartel was a half-sister to Just Cant Hide It that was bred by Darrell Frey and owned and trained by Dean. She won the 2013 Rocky Mountain Turf Club Classic and the Evergreen Park Distaff Challenge, earning $47,048.
The Frey Stable didn’t limit its runners to Arabians and Quarter Horses. Blame It On Mama was a Paint mare, and Frey recalled the little mare this way. “Dr. (Steve) Burns, and I raised her. She was a nice little Paint. She won over $54,000 and she was second in the Masterpiece. Then she won the Derby the next year. Steve gave Dusti his half and it was so much fun for me and my daughter and it helped put her through college. It was really a lot of fun for us - something we shared.” Blame It On Mama won the 2006 Masterpiece Futurity and the 2007 Pioneer Derby-G2.
When you go to the top of the earnings list for Dean Frey as a trainer, you will find four horses that were bred, owned, and trained by Frey. They include Kowboy Jim, earner of $251,450 with 39 starts, nine wins, nine seconds and nine thirds. His stakes wins include the 2018 Canterbury Championship Challenge, 2019 Cheryl White Memorial and 2021 Downs Casino Stakes. He was also third in the 2018 AQHA Challenge Championship-G1, 2017 AQHA Derby Challenge Championship Stakes-G3 and 2019 Bob Moore Stakes-G2. His sire is FDD Dynasty, and he is out of Counting On You by Mr Jess Perry. Counting On You, the earner of $8,240, was raced by Darrel and Dean Frey and trained by Dean.
Bad Monkey is his next top horse. He is a 2018 grey gelding that has had 13 starts with six wins, two seconds and one third, earning $201,786. He has three stakes wins in the 2020 AQHA Juvenile Challenge Championship-G2, 2020 Ruidoso Downs Championship Challenge Stakes-G3 and the 2021 Ruidoso Downs Derby Challenge. He is sired by Capo De Capi and out of Girls Eye Too by Mr Eye Opener.
Shez Jess Toxic is the second leading money earner bred, owned and trained by Frey. She had 23 starts with five wins, eight seconds and six thirds with earnings of $235,296. She was a three-time stakes winner in the 2011 AQHA Juvenile Challenge Championship-G2, 2013 Remington Distaff Challenge and 2011 Evergreen Park Juvenile Challenge in which she set a New Track Record for 350 yards in a time of :17.470.
Shez Jess Toxic is the dam of Danjer, the leading money earner in his barn. Since she foaled Danjer, she has had five more foals with five starters and five more ROM, making her a 100% ROM producer. Her other foals include Shezgothelook, winner of three of her six starts and a finalist in the 2019 All American Juvenile Stakes; Danjerous with a second and a third in two starts; Shes Exposed, a full sister to Danjer with one second in four starts; Braggin Rites, winner of one race in five starts; and Toxic Relationship, winner of both her starts.
Our look at the pedigree of Shez Jess Toxic starts with her dam, Dashing Fly Lady. Frey recalled how it all came about, “I claimed Danjer’s grandmother (Dashing Fly Lady) for $2,500. When I claimed her, she had pretty good form for what she was. I had a client who wanted to get into horse racing but didn’t have a lot of money to put up. As honest as she appeared on paper, we took a shot.” Dashing Fly Lady made 15 starts with six wins, five seconds and one third, earning $12,533.
He continued about how her racing career came to an end, “The last time we ran her, she fractured a coffin bone. That client said he had no use for a broodmare, so I inherited her that way, made her a broodmare, and I started breeding her.”
The produce record for Dashing Fly Lady shows that she is the dam of 12 foals with ten to race, 10 ROM and three stakes winners. Her stakes winners include Buckle High, winner of the Manitoba Speed Horse Futurity. Buckle High is the dam of the stakes winner Honor The Fast Man, winner of the Evergreen Park Derby Challenge, the Grand Prairie 440 Stakes, the Alberta Bred Derby and the Canada Quarter Horse Cup Derby. Likeachicillbegone is her second stakes winner in the 1998 Pegasus Stakes, and she is the dam of Illbegoneinajazz who won the Alex Picov Memorial Handicap.
Dashing Fly Lady is sired by Victory Dash, who earned $99,070 with 20 starts, four wins, two seconds and six thirds. He was a multiple stakes finalist and stakes placed with a third in the 1985 Jet Deck Handicap-G3 and he was fourth in the 1985 Los Alamitos Futurity-G1.
Victory Dash’s sire record shows that he sired 246 starters with 199 ROM and 34 stakes winners. His leading money winner is Deposit Cash, earner of $562,103 and the winner of three stakes races and stakes placed in 14 more. His wins include the 1998 Remington Park Championship-G1, the 1997 Heritage Place Derby-G1 and the Mexico Challenge Championship. He was second in the 1997 Rainbow Derby-G1 and 1998 Coors Champion of Champions-G1. His other runners include Toast To Dash, the 1996 Champion Two Year Old and Champion Two-Year-Old Colt; and Daring Difference, winner of the 1994 Heritage Place Futurity-G1.
Victory Dash is sired by two-time World Champion Dash For Cash, a two-time winner of the Champion of Champions. He is the #4 All-Time Leading Sire of money earners with over $39 million. Dash For Cash is sired by Rocket Wrangler and out of the Thoroughbred mare Find A Buyer by To Market.
The dam of Victory Dash is Southern Streaker, a mare with 24 starts, winning five, placing second in six and third five times earning $103,690. She was a stakes finalist in several major stakes, including a second in the 1997 Rainbow Derby-G1. She is best known as the dam of Dashs Dream, the 1984 Racing World Champion, Champion Three Year Old and Champion Three-Year-Old Filly. She came back in 1985 to be the Champion Aged Mare. She won the 1984 Champion of Champions as a three year old.
The dam of Dashing Fly Lady, the second dam of Danjer, is Ali Dandy that was unplaced in one start. She was the dam of six foals with five starters and five ROM. Her other ROM earners are: Rapid By Yawl, a finalist in the 1987 Firecracker Derby-G2; Reckless Mama; Nativo Rambler and Dandi Lady.
The sire of Ali Dandy was the Thoroughbred Nativo, who had a short race career with only two starts with two wins including his maiden win in a 5 1/2-furlong race by 15 lengths and in a 5 1/2-furlong allowance win at Ruidoso Downs by 4-lengths.
The sire record for Nativo shows he had 176 Quarter Horse starters with 91 ROM and five stakes winners, earning $684,541. His leading money earner is Nativo Time, a stakes placed runner with a third in the 1982 Kansas Futurity. His leading money earning stakes winner is Blue Bazer, a three-time stakes winner in the 1983 440 7-11 Maturity, the 1983 Boise 440 Championship and the 1983 George Mills Memorial Maturity.
Nativo was sired by Raise A Native, the 1963 Champion Two-Year-Old Colt. He also had a short race career with four wins at two, including the Great American Stakes and the Juvenile Stakes. Raise A Native has contributed to Quarter Horse racing through horses like Raise Your Glass, sire of Ruidoso Triple Crown winner Special Effort; and Medley Glass, winner of the All American Derby-G1. Heisanative by Raise A Native is the sire of Native Parr, the dam of the multiple World Champion Refrigerator.
Nativo was out of Racoco, a winner of $28,970 and the dam of the stakes winners Recce, winner the Correction Handicap and the Colonial Handicap; and Mameluke, winner of the Metropolitan Handicap. Racoco was sired by Revoked by Blue Larkspur, and Revoked was out of Gala Belle by Sir Gallahad III. The dam of Racoco was Mahratta by Mahmoud by Blenheim II.
Fly Lady Price, the fourth dam of Danjer, was an unraced mare that produced only three registered foals and two starters. Her second starter was Sterling Sinn with seven starts and placing only one time with a second. The sire of Fly Lady Price was Flying Bar, the sire of three stakes placed runners in Anna Maria, who was second in the 1966 Lubbock Downs Derby; Baldy B Good, who was third in the 1966 Delta Downs Futurity; and Flying Cobra, who was second in the 1964 Blue Ribbon Downs Championship. Flying Bar was sired by Balda Jim by Bogle by San Siemon, and he was out of Bar Fly by Bogle by San Siemon. San Siemon was sired by Zantanon, the sire of such famous stallions as King P-234 and Ed Echols.
The dam of Fly Lady Price is Lady Price. According to AQHA records, Lady Price is a daughter of the Thoroughbred Silverdale, a stakes winner of the Arlington Inaugural Handicap (twice), the Miami Beach Handicap, the Miami Jockey Club Handicap and the Edgewater Gulf Hotel Claiming Sweepstakes. Silverdale had 132 starts with 33 wins, 20 seconds and 14 thirds to earn $57,755. He set a New Track Record at Washington Park going a mile and 70 yards in a time of 1:40 4/5. Silverdale is sired by The Porter by Sweep, the son of Ben Brush and out of Pink Domino by Domino. The Porter was out of Ballet Girl by St. Leonards and her dam was Cerito, the dam of Ballot who is the great grandsire of Three Bars - who was sired by Percentage by Midway by Ballot.
Some records show the sire of Lady Price to be a Thoroughbred named Prince Silver Dale and I can’t find his pedigree or a record of him in Thoroughbred computer records. The dam of Lady Price in the AQHA Stud Book is Driver by a Dean Horse by Waggoner P-269. Her dam in this pedigree is a Dean Mare by a Dean Horse.
The sire of Shez Jess Toxic, the dam of Danjer, is Take Off Jess, and this is how Frey recalled the horse, “Take Off Jess ran second in the All American (Futurity) and was a pretty good-bred horse. I really liked him. He did something to his knee in the All American and never ran again. I liked him and I like his pedigree.”
Take Off Jess had seven starts in 2004 with two wins, three seconds and one third to earn $380,087. He was second in the All American Futurity-G1, second in the West Texas Futurity and third in the Ruidoso Futurity-G1.
The sire record for Take Off Jess shows that he sired just 133 foals with 83 starters, 64 ROM and nine stakes winners. His leading money earners are Joltin Jess, winner of $246,790 including the AJAX Championship Challenge, the Orange Blossom Stakes, the Crystal River Stakes and the Moonstone Stakes; and Oklahoma Bandido, winner of $162,609 including the Speedhorse Gold & Silver Cup Derby-G3 and the Mr Master Bug Handicap. The Take Off Jess broodmare sire record shows that he is the maternal grandsire of just 36 starters with four stakes winners of $2,603,327. Of course, his leading money earner is Danjer, followed by Charlies Fury and Jess My Hocks, who are out of the Take Off Jess daughter Jess Charlena. Charlies Fury earned $385,126, including wins in the 2021 Bob Moore Memorial Handicap-G2, the 2019 Will Rogers Derby Challenge and the 2020 & 2021 OQHRA Fall Classic Stakes. Jess My Hocks has earned $302,166, including wins in the 2020 AQHA Derby Challenge Championship, the 2021 Leo Stakes-G1 and the Will Rogers Derby Challenge. Danjer and Jess My Hocks met three times in 2021 with Jess My Hocks winning the Leo Stakes and Danjer finishing second. They met again in the Debbie Schauf Remington Park Invitational with Danjer finishing first and Jess My Hocks fourth, and they met again in the Refrigerator Invitational Championship-G1 with Danjer first and Jess My Hocks third.
Take Off Jess is sired by Mr Jess Perry, the 1994 Champion Two Year Old and Champion Two-Year-Old Colt winning such races as the Texas Classic Futurity-G1. Mr Jess Perry, on the way to his championship titles, set a New Track Record for 400 yards in a time of :19.66 at Sam Houston in the Texas Classic Futurity and he also set a New Track Record at Delta Downs in the LQHBA Futurity-RG1 in a time of :19.97 for 400 yards. He came back at three to win the Texas Classic Derby-G1.
Mr Jess Perry is the #3 all-time leading sire with earnings of over $58 million. His leading money earner is Matabari, winner of $1,410,471 and the 2013 Champion Three-Year-Old Filly. Mr Jess Perry is the #2 all-time leading broodmare sire by money earned. His maternal grandget have earned over $101 million and leading money earner is Heza Dasha Fire, earner of $2,240,112 and the 2015 World Champion. Mr Jess Perry is sired by Streakin La Jolla and he is out of Scoopie Finn by Sinn Fein.
The dam of Take Off Jess is Takeoff Royally by First Down Dash. This mare had 12 starts with only one third place finish earning $3,945. She is the dam of 21 foals with 14 starters with nine ROM and one stakes winner. Her leading money earner is Take Off Jess. The stakes winner is Captain On Takeoff, winner of the 2016 Wayne Brasher Memorial Stakes and the 2017 Sonoita Ranchers Bonus Challenge.
The dam of Takeoff Royally is Timeto Takeoff by Timeto Thinkrich. This mare had 16 starts with four wins, five seconds and three thirds earning $76,002. She was a multiple stakes placed runner, all in 1981, with a seconds in the Vessels Maturity, Go Man Go Handicap, Miss Peninsula Handicap and thirds in the Go Man Go Handicap and Chicado V Handicap.
Timeto Takeoff is the dam of 10 foals with eight starters, seven ROM and two stakes winners that have earned $800,367. Her leading money earner is Royal Down Dash, winner of $405,384 with nine stakes wins including the 1993 All American Derby-G1, 1993 AQHA Derby Challenge-G2, 1993 Sunland Park Fall Derby-G3 and 1994 New Mexico Championship Challenge-G3. Royal Down Dash was the 1993 Champion Three Year Old and Champion Three-Year Old Filly. The second stakes winner out of Timeto Takeoff is Time For Royal Cash, winner of the 1993 Golden State Futurity-G1, 1994 Golden State Derby-G1 and QHBC Championship Classic-G1. This mare earned $313,583. Timeto Takeoff was the 1993 and 1994 Broodmare of the Year.
I asked Frey about his approach to putting the matings together for his breeding program, and he responded, “I research it very hard. My daughter always told me she got tired of me looking at the stud book every night. But I like to check crosses and I have certain horses that I like. I was a big FDD fan and when I was at Los Alamitos when he was running, he’d walk by the barn going to the racetrack and he was one that always caught my eye. He had an air to him. I haven’t bred to him every year, but I have supported him from the first year he went on the market to be bred to.”
FDD Dynasty was the 2006 Champion Two-Year-Old Colt and the 2007 Champion Three-Year-Old Colt. He won the Ed Burke Million Futurity-G1, was second in the Los Alamitos Two Million Futurity-G1 and third in the Golden State Million Futurity-G1. He won the Go Man Go Handicap-G1 and the Governor’s Cup Derby-G2 and was third in the prestigious Champion of Champions-G1 at three. He retired with eight wins in 11 starts with one second and two thirds, earning $1,173,001.
FDD Dynasty is sired by First Down Dash, the 1987 World Champion who won 13 of 15 starts in his two-year racing career earning $857,256. He is now the all-time leading money earning sire with over $85 million in earnings. Dash For Cash is the sire of First Down Dash. The dam of First Down Dash is First Prize Rose, a stakes placed runner including a second in the Three Bars Handicap. She won six races and earned $22,754. She is the dam of seven foals with seven starters and two stakes winners. Her stakes winners are First Down Dash and First A Rose, winner to the QHBC Sophomore Classic-G2. First Prize Rose was sired by Gallant Jet, who was sired by Jet Deck and out of Leo Jewell by Leo. The dam of First Prize Rose is Rose Bug by Lady Bug’s Moon and out of Casco Rose by Levan.
The dam of FDD Dynasty is Dinastia Toll BRZ, a 1998 mare that won $191,896 in the United States while winning the Charger Bar Handicap-G1, Las Damas Handicap-G2 (twice) and the Z Wayne Griffith Director’s Stakes-G3. Dinastia Toll Brz is sired by Tolltac, the 1983 Champion Two-Year-Old Colt and 1984 Champion Three-Year-Old Colt. Tolltac is sired by Beduino TB and he is out of Little Smoothie by Smooth Move and out of Marilyn Mae by Moon Deck - the sire of Jet Deck.
Phillips Filly is the dam of Dinastia Toll BRZ. She is a non-starter in the USA, but it appears she started nine times in Brazil with two wins and she was stakes placed in the GP Rancho das Americas. Phillips Filly is the dam of just two starters in the USA and that includes Picasso Toll, a stake placed runner with a second in the Holiday Stakes. The race record for Picasso Toll in Brazil shows that he won seven starts in ten races. He was a stakes winner in GP Venancio Luzardo Em Carazinho.
The sire of Phillips Filly is the All American Futurity-G1 winner On A High by Dash For Cash and out of Yankee Doll, a Thoroughbred mare sired by Mito Paint. Yankee Doll is out of Crafty Yankee by Crafty Actor.
Sharper Image, the dam of Phillips Filly, is a daughter of Easy Jet. She is out of Miss Killoqua, a winner of four races and $2,749. Miss Killoqua was the dam of 12 starters with nine winners and 11 ROM. Her stakes winners were Rebel Killoqua and Deckas Deal.
Shez Jess Toxic Nick
One of the things we look for in a nick is the repeatability of that cross to produce good runners. Here is what you find about FDD Dynasty and his cross on Mr Jess Perry line mares and some of his top runners.
FDD Dynasty has sired the winners of over $27 million. This includes 595 racing ROM from 785 starters with 86 stakes winners. His leading money earner is Jessies First Down, the two-time World Champion, Champion Aged Horse and Aged Gelding. Another Champion sired by FDD Dynasty is Kates Dynasty, the 2013 Champion Two-Year-Old Filly.
When we look at the top 15 money earners sired by FDD Dynasty, we see that eight of his leading money earners are out of broodmares that come from Mr Jess Perry sire line. The list starts with Jessies First Down ($1,599,502), Danjer ($1,503,885), FDD Scout ($588,494), Terrific Synergy ($307,026), Midday News ($302,837), Dynasty Energy ($283,564), CDS Wine N Dine ($257,257) and Kowboy Jim ($251,450). You will note that Dean Frey has two on this list.
When you win a World Championship, it brings back memories of how you got to win the World Championship title. This was a sentiment that Dean Frey spoke about as he reflected upon his and his father’s lives on the track. “I had big hopes and big dreams and never thought it would come true and, unfortunately, Dad wasn’t here to see it, but hopefully he was watching.” Congratulations to all the connections of Danjer, the 2021 World Champion, for fulfilling their dream.